Recent Publications

Last 20 publications – view all on PubMed

  • by Yixiang Deng
    The reduced effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines due to the emergence of variants of concern (VOCs) necessitated the use of vaccine boosters to bolster protection against disease. However, it remains unclear how boosting expands protective breadth when primary vaccine platforms are distinct and how boosters containing VOC spike(s) broaden humoral responses. Here, we report that boosters […]
  • by Cong Jiang
    Methionine is an essential branch of diverse nutrient inputs that dictate mTORC1 activation. In the absence of methionine, SAMTOR binds to GATOR1 and inhibits mTORC1 signaling. However, how mTORC1 is activated upon methionine stimulation remains largely elusive. Here, we report that PRMT1 senses methionine/SAM by utilizing SAM as a cofactor for an enzymatic activity-based regulation […]
  • by Bailey B Banach
    The HIV-1 fusion peptide (FP) represents a promising vaccine target, but global FP sequence diversity among circulating strains has limited anti-FP antibodies to ~60% neutralization breadth. Here we evolve the FP-targeting antibody VRC34.01 in vitro to enhance FP-neutralization using site saturation mutagenesis and yeast display. Successive rounds of directed evolution by iterative selection of antibodies […]
  • by Xin Tong
    Influenza viruses infect 5-30% of the world's population annually, resulting in millions of incidents of hospitalization and thousands of mortalities worldwide every year. Although annual vaccination has significantly reduced hospitalization rates in vulnerable populations, the current vaccines are estimated to offer a wide range of protection from 10 to 60% annually. Such incomplete immunity may […]
  • by Sydney L Solomon
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection remains one of society's greatest human health challenges. Macrophages integrate multiple signals derived from ontogeny, infection, and the environment. This integration proceeds heterogeneously during infection. Some macrophages are infected, while others are not; therefore, bulk approaches mask the subpopulation dynamics. We establish a modular, targeted, single-cell protein analysis framework to study […]
  • by Gregory E Edelstein
    CONCLUSION: Virologic rebound occurred in approximately 1 in 5 people taking N-R, often without symptom rebound, and was associated with shedding of replication-competent virus.
  • by Abbas Mohammadi
    Non-suppressible HIV-1 viremia (NSV) is defined as persistent low-level viremia on antiretroviral therapy (ART) without evidence of ART non-adherence or significant drug resistance. Unraveling the mechanisms behind NSV would broaden our understanding of HIV-1 persistence. Here we analyzed plasma virus sequences in eight ART-treated individuals with NSV (88% male) and show that they are composed […]
  • by Nathan L Meyers
    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the leading cause of death from liver disease. How HCV infection causes lasting liver damage and increases cancer risk remains unclear. Here, we identify bipotent liver stem cells as novel targets for HCV infection, and their erroneous differentiation as the potential cause of impaired liver regeneration and cancer development. We […]
  • by Weiwei Sun
    HIV-1 reservoir cells that circulate in peripheral blood during suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) have been well characterized, but little is known about the dissemination of HIV-1-infected cells across multiple anatomical tissues, especially the CNS. Here, we performed single-genome, near full-length HIV-1 next-generation sequencing to evaluate the proviral landscape in distinct anatomical compartments, including multiple CNS […]
  • by Ivy Phung
    Adjuvants and antigen delivery kinetics can profoundly influence B cell responses and should be critically considered in rational vaccine design, particularly for difficult neutralizing antibody targets such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Antigen kinetics can change depending on the delivery method. To promote extended immunogen bioavailability and to present antigen in a multivalent form, native-HIV […]
  • by Rui Miao
    Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-activated inflammatory cell death (pyroptosis) causes mitochondrial damage, but its underlying mechanism and functional consequences are largely unknown. Here, we show that the N-terminal pore-forming GSDMD fragment (GSDMD-NT) rapidly damaged both inner and outer mitochondrial membranes (OMMs) leading to reduced mitochondrial numbers, mitophagy, ROS, loss of transmembrane potential, attenuated oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), and […]
  • by Nicolas Huot
    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA generally becomes undetectable in upper airways after a few days or weeks postinfection. Here we used a model of viral infection in macaques to address whether SARS-CoV-2 persists in the body and which mechanisms regulate its persistence. Replication-competent virus was detected in bronchioalveolar lavage (BAL) macrophages beyond […]
  • by Catherine K Koofhethile
    CONCLUSION: This data suggests that similar to HIV-1 infection, the proviral landscape of HIV-2 is dominated by defective proviruses.
  • by Yannic C Bartsch
    An Ad26.RSV.preF/RSV preF protein combination vaccine demonstrated 80.0% vaccine efficacy for the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-mediated lower respiratory tract disease in a phase 2b study. In addition to neutralizing antibodies, Fc-effector functions are associated with protective immunity against RSV. Here, vaccine-induced Fc-effector functions were evaluated for the Ad26.RSV.preF/RSV preF protein vaccine in a […]
  • by Kalo Musukuma-Chifulo
    The significance of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) detection in the cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) in people living with HIV (PLWH) is not entirely understood. The detection of EBV DNA may represent active central nervous system (CNS) infection, reactivation in the setting of another CNS pathogen or due to impaired immunity, or detection of quiescent virus. We […]
  • by Victoria O Kasprowicz
    Recent efforts to shift the control and leadership of health research on African issues to Africa have led to increased investments for scientific research capacity strengthening (RCS) on the continent and a greater demand for accountability, value for money and demonstration of return on investment. There is limited literature on monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of […]
  • by Charul Jani
    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) has evolved to be exquisitely adapted to survive within host macrophages. The capacity to damage the phagosomal membrane has emerged as central to Mtb virulence. While Mtb factors driving membrane damage have been described, host factors that repair that damage to contain the pathogen remain largely unknown. We used a genome-wide CRISPR […]
  • by Ninaad Lasrado
    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variant BA.2.86 has over 30 mutations in spike compared with BA.2 and XBB.1.5, which raised the possibility that BA.2.86 might evade neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) induced by vaccination or infection. In this study, we show that NAb titers are substantially lower to BA.2.86 compared with BA.2 but are […]
  • by Malika Aid
    Thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome (TTS) is a rare but potentially severe adverse event following immunization with adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines such as Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen) and ChAdOx1 (AstraZeneca). However, no case of TTS has been reported in over 1.5 million individuals who received a second immunization with Ad26.COV2.S in the United States. Here we utilize transcriptomic […]
  • by Joseph Vecchio
    Smoking negatively affects B cell function and immunoglobulin levels, but it is unclear if this immune dysfunction contributes to the risk of severe COVID-19 in smokers. We evaluated binding IgM, IgA and IgG antibodies to spike and receptor binding domain antigens, and used a pseudovirus assay to quantify neutralization titers in a set of 27 […]