Recent Publications

Last 20 publications – view all on PubMed

  • by Maria Zagorulya
    Cytotoxic CD8^(+) T cells are potent killers of diseased cells, but their functional capacity is often compromised in cancer. The quality of antitumor T cell immunity is determined during T cell priming in the lymph node and further influenced by the local microenvironment of the tumor. Increasing evidence indicates that dendritic cells (DCs) have the […]
  • by Daniel J Stieh
    CONCLUSIONS: Adding mosaic gp140 to the clade C regimen increased and broadened the elicited immune response without compromising safety or clade C responses.
  • by Jérémie Prévost
    Non-neutralizing antibodies (nnAbs) can eliminate HIV-1-infected cells via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and were identified as a correlate of protection in the RV144 vaccine trial. Fc-mediated effector functions of nnAbs were recently shown to alter the course of HIV-1 infection in vivo using a vpu-defective virus. Since Vpu is known to downregulate cell-surface CD4, which […]
  • by Timothy M Caradonna
    Pathogens evade host humoral responses by accumulating mutations in surface antigens. While variable, there are conserved regions that cannot mutate without compromising fitness. Antibodies targeting these conserved epitopes are often broadly protective but remain minor components of the repertoire. Rational immunogen design leverages a structural understanding of viral antigens to modulate humoral responses to favor […]
  • by Jonathan D Herman
    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) convalescent plasma (CCP), a passive polyclonal antibody therapeutic agent, has had mixed clinical results. Although antibody neutralization is the predominant approach to benchmarking CCP efficacy, CCP may also influence the evolution of the endogenous antibody response. Using systems serology to comprehensively profile severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) functional antibodies […]
  • by Ahmed S Fahad
    Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS) of human antibody repertoires has been extensively implemented to discover novel antibody drugs, to analyze B-cell developmental features, and to investigate antibody responses to infectious diseases and vaccination. Because the antibody repertoire encoded by human B cells is highly diverse, NGS analyses of antibody genes have provided a new window into […]
  • by Rabiah Fardoos
    Lymphoid tissues are an important HIV reservoir site that persists in the face of antiretroviral therapy and natural immunity. Targeting these reservoirs by harnessing the antiviral activity of local tissue-resident memory (TRM) CD8+ T-cells is of great interest, but limited data exist on TRM-like cells within lymph nodes of people living with HIV (PLWH). Here, […]
  • by Isabella Fraschilla
    Metabolic shifts can occur in cells of the innate immune system in response to microbial infection. Whether these metabolic shifts benefit host defense and propagation of an immune response appears to be context dependent. In an arms race, host-adapted microbes and mammalian cells vie for control of biosynthetic machinery, organelles, and metabolites. Herein, we discuss […]
  • by Jason Y H Chang
    Protein antigens are often combined with aluminum hydroxide (alum), the most commonly used adjuvant in licensed vaccines; yet the immunogenicity of alum-adjuvanted vaccines leaves much room for improvement. Here, the authors demonstrate a strategy for codelivering an immunostimulatory cytokine, the interleukin IL-21, with an engineered outer domain (eOD) human immunodeficiency virus gp120 Env immunogen eOD, […]
  • by Raquel A Binder
    CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the importance of evaluating serosurvey tools for antigen, isotype, and threshold-specific sensitivity and specificity, in order to interpret qualitative serosurvey outcomes reliably and consistently across studies.
  • by Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou
    CONCLUSION: Antibody-based nasal sprays could provide protection against infection to individuals that are likely to be exposed to the virus. Large-scale administration for a long period of time would be challenging. Intranasal antibody prophylaxis alone cannot prevent community-wide transmission of the virus. It could be used along with other protective measures, such as non-pharmaceutical interventions, […]
  • by Anna-Ursula Happel
    Several soluble cytokines have been associated with microbicide-induced cervicovaginal inflammation, non-optimal vaginal microbiota, and risk of HIV acquisition. Many of these biomarkers are used in preclinical assays to estimate the safety of vaginally applied products. However, there are currently no validated biomarkers to evaluate the safety of novel vaginal products in clinical trials. This hinders […]
  • by Madeleine D Burns
    The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between anti-SARS-CoV-2-Spike IgG titers passively transferred to the fetus from maternal vaccination during pregnancy and timing of infant SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pregnant, vaccinated individuals (n = 105) and their infants (n = 107) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study from July 2021 to June 2022, […]
  • by Harapan Harapan
    The 2022 multi-country monkeypox outbreak in humans has brought new public health adversity on top of the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The disease has spread to 104 countries throughout six continents of the world, with the highest burden in North America and Europe. The etiologic agent, monkeypox virus (MPXV), has been known since […]
  • by Robert Krause
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar disease severity, these trends were highest in participants with uncontrolled HIV, implicating HIV in driving these changes. EF B cell responses are rapid but give rise to lower affinity antibodies, less durable long-term memory, and reduced capacity to adapt to new variants. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of […]
  • by Gabriel Dagotto
    The COVID-19 pandemic marks the third coronavirus pandemic this century (SARS-CoV-1, MERS, SARS-CoV-2), emphasizing the need to identify and evaluate conserved immunogens for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine. Here we investigate the potential utility of a T-cell vaccine strategy targeting conserved regions of the sarbecovirus proteome. We identified the most conserved regions of the sarbecovirus proteome as […]
  • by Laura J Yockey
    Bacterial vaginosis (BV), the overgrowth of diverse anaerobic bacteria in the vagina, is the most common cause of vaginal symptoms worldwide. BV frequently recurs after antibiotic therapy, and the best probiotic treatments only result in transient changes from BV-associated states to "optimal" communities dominated by a single species of Lactobacillus. Therefore, additional treatment strategies are […]
  • by Jennifer Chen Li
    Reported adverse reactions to the mRNA-1273 vaccine (Spikevax, Moderna Inc) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) range from mild, local delayed cutaneous reactions to rarer, more serious reactions such as myocarditis. Here, we describe the presentation and successful treatment of delayed, localized necrotizing inflammatory myositis following a third dose of the mRNA-1273 SARS-CoV-2 […]
  • by Sarah E Turbett
    CONCLUSION: Despite good overall concordance with viral genomic analysis, clinical and Ct value-based assessments failed to identify 33% of genomically-supported reinfections. Scaling-up genomic analysis for clinical use would improve detection of SARS-CoV-2 reinfections.
  • by Weiwei Dai
    Reversing HIV-1 latency promotes killing of infected cells and is essential for cure strategies; however, no single latency reversing agent (LRA) or LRA combination have been shown to reduce HIV-1 latent reservoir size in persons living with HIV-1 (PLWH). Here, we describe an approach to systematically identify LRA combinations to reactivate latent HIV-1 using genome-wide […]