Vaginal microbiota have been shown to be a modifier of protection offered by topical tenofovir in preventing HIV infection in women, an effect not observed with oral tenofovir-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). It remains unclear whether PrEP can influence the vaginal microbiota composition. This study investigated the impact of daily oral tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in combination […]
The rise of SARS-CoV-2 variants and the history of outbreaks caused by zoonotic coronaviruses point to the need for next-generation vaccines that confer protection against variant strains. Here, we combined analyses of diverse sequences and structures of coronavirus spikes with data from deep mutational scanning to design SARS-CoV-2 variant antigens containing the most significant mutations […]
Neonatal herpes simplex virus (nHSV) infections often result in significant mortality and neurological morbidity despite antiviral drug therapy. Maternally transferred herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific antibodies reduce the risk of clinically overt nHSV, but this observation has not been translationally applied. Using a neonatal mouse model, we tested the hypothesis that passive transfer of HSV-specific human […]
Background: Risk perceptions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are considered important as they impact community health behaviors. The aim of this study was to determine the perceived risk of infection and death due to COVID-19 and to assess the factors associated with such risk perceptions among community members in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in […]
Viruses employ a variety of strategies to escape or counteract immune responses, including depletion of cell surface major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), that would ordinarily present viral peptides to CD8^(+) cytotoxic T cells. As part of a screen to elucidate biological activities associated with individual severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) viral proteins, we […]
Germinal centres are the engines of antibody evolution. Here, using human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Env protein immunogen priming in rhesus monkeys followed by a long period without further immunization, we demonstrate germinal centre B (B(GC)) cells that last for at least 6 months. A 186-fold increase in B(GC) cells was present by week 10 compared […]
Variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have emerged continuously, challenging the effectiveness of vaccines, diagnostics, and treatments. Moreover, the possibility of the appearance of a new betacoronavirus with high transmissibility and high fatality is reason for concern. In this study, we used a natively paired yeast display technology, combined with next-generation sequencing […]
Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder whose pathogenesis is poorly understood and that lacks effective therapies. Detailed quantitative and spatial analyses of tissues affected by Sjögren's syndrome were undertaken, including the quantitation of the frequency of selected cell-cell interactions in the disease milieu. Quantitative analyses of CD4^(+) T cell subsets and of CD8^(+) T […]
Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)-blockade immunotherapies have limited efficacy in the treatment of bladder cancer. Here, we show that NKG2A associates with improved survival and responsiveness to PD-L1 blockade immunotherapy in bladder tumors that have high abundance of CD8^(+) T cells. In bladder tumors, NKG2A is acquired on CD8^(+) T cells […]
CONCLUSION: The genomic organization of the cynomolgus macaque has great similarity with the rhesus macaque and they shared > 90% sequence similarity with the human TCR repertoire. The identification of the TCR repertoire facilitates analysis of T cell immunity in cynomolgus macaques.
CONCLUSIONS: 10-1074 and VRC01LS were safe and well-tolerated among children receiving ART. Troughs exceeded minimal targets with every 4-week administration of 10-1074 at 30 mg/kg and VRC01LS at 15 mg/kg.
Antigen-specific T cells play an essential role in immunoregulation and many diseases such as cancer. Characterizing the T cell receptor (TCR) sequences that encode T cell specificity is critical for elucidating the antigenic determinants of immunological diseases and designing therapeutic remedies. However, methods of obtaining single-cell TCR sequencing data are labor and cost intensive, typically […]
Macrophages play a significant role in HIV infection and contribute to pathogenesis of comorbidities as well as establishment of the viral reservoir in people living with HIV. While CD4+ T cells are considered the main targets of HIV infection, infected macrophages resist the cytopathic effects of infection, contributing to the persistent HIV reservoir. Furthermore, activated […]
Microbial adhesion and contamination on shared surfaces can lead to life-threatening infections with serious impacts on public health, economy, and clinical practices. The traditional use of chemical disinfectants for sanitization of surfaces, however, comes with its share of health risks, such as hazardous effects on the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, carcinogenicity, as well as […]
Interleukin-23 receptor plays a critical role in inducing inflammation and autoimmunity. Here, we report that Th1-like cells differentiated in vitro with IL-12 + IL-21 showed similar IL-23R expression to that of pathogenic Th17 cells using eGFP reporter mice. Fate mapping established that these cells did not transition through a Th17 cell state prior to becoming […]
While Epstein-Barr virus causes mostly asymptomatic infection, associated malignancies, and autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases occur. To dissect the evolution of humoral immune responses over the course of EBV infection and to gain a better understanding of the potential contribution of antibody (Ab) function to viral control, we comprehensively profiled Ab specificities and Fc-functionalities using systems […]
SIVmac239 infection of macaques is a favored model of human HIV infection. However, the SIVmac239 envelope (Env) trimer structure, glycan occupancy, and the targets and ability of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) to protect against SIVmac239 remain unknown. Here, we report the isolation of SIVmac239 nAbs that recognize a glycan hole and the V1/V4 loop. A high-resolution […]
The diagnosis of post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) poses an ongoing medical challenge. To identify biomarkers associated with PASC we analyzed plasma samples collected from PASC and COVID-19 patients to quantify viral antigens and inflammatory markers. We detect SARS-CoV-2 spike predominantly in PASC patients up to 12 months post-diagnosis.
Preterm newborns are more likely to suffer from infectious diseases at birth compared to children delivered at term. Whether this is due to compromised cellular, humoral, or organ-specific development remains unclear. To begin to define whether maternal-fetal antibody transfer profiles differ across preterm (PT) and fullterm (FT) infants, the overall quantity and functional quality of […]